mardi 30 mars 2021

Manually install a single node Kubernetes cluster on Debian

Debian has work-in-progress packages for Kubernetes, which work well enough enough for a testing and learning environement. Bootstraping a cluster with the kubeadm deployer with these packages is not that hard, and is similar to the upstream kubeadm documentation

Install necessary packages in a VM

Install a throwaway VM with Vagrant.

apt install vagrant vagrant-libvirt
vagrant init debian/testing64

Bump the RAM and CPU of the VM, Kubernetes needs at least 2 gigs and 2 cores.

awk  -i inplace '1;/^Vagrant.configure\("2"\) do \|config/ {print "  config.vm.provider :libvirt do |vm|  vm.memory=2048 end"}' Vagrantfile
awk  -i inplace '1;/^Vagrant.configure\("2"\) do \|config/ {print "  config.vm.provider :libvirt do |vm|  vm.cpus=2 end"}' Vagrantfile

Start the VM, login, update the package index.

vagrant up
vagrant ssh
sudo apt update

Install a container engine, here we use, we could also use containerd (both are packaged in Debian) or cri-o.

sudo apt install --yes --no-install-recommends curl

Install kubernetes binaries. This will install kubelet, the system service which will manage the containers, and kubectl the user/admin tool to manage the cluster.

sudo apt install --yes kubernetes-{node,client} containernetworking-plugins

Although it is not technically mandatory, we will use kubeadm, the most popular installer to create a Kubernetes cluster. Kubeadm is not packaged in Debian, we have to download an upstream binary.


sha512sum kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
28529733bf34f5d5b72eabe30a81df98cc7f8e529590f807745cd67986a2c5c3eb86cebc7ecbcfc3df3c50416306e5d150948f2483933ea46c2aebaeb871ea8f  kubernetes-server-linux-arm64.tar.gz

sudo tar --directory=/usr/local/sbin --strip-components 3 -xaf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz kubernetes/server/bin/kubeadm
sudo chmod +x /usr/local/sbin/kubeadm 
sudo kubeadm version
kubeadm version: &version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"20", GitVersion:"v1.20.5", GitCommit:"6b1d87acf3c8253c123756b9e61dac642678305f", GitTreeState:"clean", BuildDate:"2021-03-18T01:08:27Z", GoVersion:"go1.15.8", Compiler:"gc", Platform:"linux/amd64"}

Add a kubelet systemd unit:

curl -sSL "${RELEASE_VERSION}/cmd/kubepkg/templates/latest/deb/kubelet/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service" | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service
sudo systemctl enable kubelet

and a default config file for kubeadm

sudo mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d
curl -sSL "${RELEASE_VERSION}/cmd/kubepkg/templates/latest/deb/kubeadm/10-kubeadm.conf" | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf

finally we need to help kubelet find the components needed for container networking

echo 'KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS="--cni-bin-dir=/usr/lib/cni"' | sudo tee /etc/default/kubelet

Create a cluster

Initialize a cluster with kubeadm: this will download container images for the Kubernetes control plane (= the brain of the cluster), and start the containers via the kubelet service. Yes a good part of Kubernetes itself run in containers.

sudo kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=
Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

Follow the instructions from the kubeadm output, and verify you have a single node cluster, with the status NotReady.

kubectl get nodes 
NAME      STATUS     ROLES                  AGE    VERSION
testing   NotReady   control-plane,master   9m9s   v1.20.5

At that point you should also have a bunch of containers running on the node:

sudo docker ps --format '{{.Names}}'

The kubelet service also needs an external network plugin to get the cluster in Ready state.

sudo systemctl status kubelet
Mar 28 09:28:43 testing kubelet[9405]: E0328 09:28:43.958059    9405 kubelet.go:2188] Container runtime network not ready: NetworkReady=false reason:NetworkPluginNotReady message:docker: network plugin is not ready: cni config uninitialized

Let’s add that network plugin. Download the flannel network plugin definition, and schedule flannel to run on all nodes of your cluster:

kubectl apply --filename=kube-flannel.yml

After a dozen of seconds your node should be in ready status.

kubectl get nodes 
NAME      STATUS   ROLES                  AGE   VERSION
testing   Ready    control-plane,master   16m   v1.20.5

Deploy a test application

Our node is now in Ready status, but we cannot run application on it, since we only have a master node, an administrative node which by default cannot run user applications.

kubectl describe node testing | grep ^Taints

Let’s allow node testing to run user applications:

kubectl taint node testing

Deploy a nginx container:

kubectl run my-nginx-pod --port=80 --labels="app=http-content" 

Create a Kubernetes service to access this pod externally:

cat service.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: my-k8s-service
  type: NodePort
    - port: 80
      nodePort: 30000
    app: http-content 

kubectl create --filename service.yaml

Access the service via IP adress:

Thank you for using nginx.


I will try to get this blog post in a Debian Wiki article, or maybe in the kubernetes-node documentation. Blog posts deprecate and disappear, wiki and project docs live longer.

Playing with cri-o, a container runtime built for Kubernetes

Kubernetes is moving aways from docker to alternative container engines presenting a smaller core having just the functionality needed. The two most populars alternatives are:

  • containerd, a subset of docker, used for instance in Google Kubernetes Engine
  • cri-o, a new implementation of a container engine, used for instance in Red Hat's Kubernetes offering (OpenShift)

These alternatives are meant to be used programatically via a unix domain socket, and therefore have a limited command line interface.

Let's play around in a VM.

Install a throwaway VM with Vagrant

apt install vagrant vagrant-libvirt
vagrant init debian/testing64

Start the VM, install dependencies

vagrant up
vagrant ssh
sudo apt update
sudo apt install --yes curl gnupg jq

Install cri-o the container engine

sudo bash
export OS=Debian_Testing VERSION=1.20

echo "deb$OS/ /" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/libcontainers.list
echo "deb$VERSION/$OS/ /" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cri-o:$VERSION.list
curl -L$VERSION/$OS/Release.key | apt-key add -
curl -L$OS/Release.key | apt-key add -
apt install cri-o cri-o-runc containernetworking-plugins conntrack

Verify it is running properly

systemctl restart cri-o
systemctl status cri-o
Started Container Runtime Interface for OCI (CRI-O).

Say hello to cri-o via its unix domain socket

curl --silent  --unix-socket /var/run/crio/crio.sock http://localhost/info | jq 
  "storage_driver": "overlay",
  "storage_root": "/var/lib/containers/storage",
  "cgroup_driver": "systemd",
  "default_id_mappings": {
    "uids": [
        "container_id": 0,
        "host_id": 0,
        "size": 4294967295
    "gids": [
        "container_id": 0,
        "host_id": 0,
        "size": 4294967295

Install crictl, a Kubernetes debugging tool for containers

wget --directory-prefix=/tmp
tar -xaf /tmp/crictl-v1.20.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/sbin/
chmod +x /usr/local/sbin/crictl

crictl info
  "status": {
    "conditions": [
        "type": "RuntimeReady",
        "status": true,
        "reason": "",
        "message": ""
        "type": "NetworkReady",
        "status": true,
        "reason": "",
        "message": ""

From there on you can create a container following the examples in

dimanche 28 mars 2021

Switching to FAI (Fully Automatic Installer) for creating Vagrant Boxes

Have you heard of Vagrant ? It is a command line tool to get ready to use, disposable Virtual Machines (VM) from an online catalog. Vagrant works on Linux, FreeBSD, Windows and Mac and you only need three commands to get a shell prompt in a VM (see the Debian wiki).
The online catalog has images for the majority of the OSes you can think of.

We've been building the Debian disk images for Vagrant (available on with a number of tools over the years:

  • then packer, which is wrapping qemu and the Debian installer CD with automated bootparams and preseed file.
  • and then fai-diskimage, again a wrapper over debootstrap using loopback mounts

Basically there are two category of tools for building a disk image:

- those using an emulator and the OS installer in a automated way

- those using debootstrap/pacstrap/rpmstrap on a loopback mounted filesystem

Personally I prefer the first approach, as you can run the build process as non root, and you benefit from all the quality work of the official installer.
However this requires virtualization, and nested virtualization if your build process run insides a VM. Unfortunately nested virtualization is not that common, for instance my cloud provider, and the VMs used for Debian Continuous Integration, are not supporting nested virtualization.
As the maintainer of fai-diskimage is a Debian Developer (hey MrFAI ! :) and as the debian-cloud folks are it using for Amazon, Azure and Google Cloud Debian images, it made sense to switch to fai-diskimage for now. The fai-diskimage learning curve is a bit steep as you have to learn many internal concepts before using it, but once you get the bits connected it works quite well.

mardi 9 mars 2021

Displaying CSV files in a readable way on the terminal

 Until this week I did not know about the column command.

$ head -5 zillow.csv
"Index", "Living Space (sq ft)", "Beds", "Baths", "Zip", "Year", "List Price ($)"
 1, 2222, 3, 3.5, 32312, 1981, 250000
 2, 1628, 3, 2,   32308, 2009, 185000
 3, 3824, 5, 4,   32312, 1954, 399000
 4, 1137, 3, 2,   32309, 1993, 150000

Turned out this file is much more readable with a good pipe (and a large screen)

$ head -5 zillow.csv | column --table --separator ,
"Index"   "Living Space (sq ft)"   "Beds"   "Baths"   "Zip"     "Year"   "List Price ($)"
 1        2222                     3        3.5       32312     1981     250000
 2        1628                     3        2           32308   2009     185000
 3        3824                     5        4           32312   1954     399000
 4        1137                     3        2           32309   1993     150000

column is part of util-linux and is thus available in all distributions.
Example file taken from this example list.